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How to SOLDER BOOKLET

METAL CRAFT HOW-TO ARTICLES

About Shaped Wire

Square, Half Round and more

also
Gauge Sheet metal chart
& Raw Metal Terms

See our Square and Half-Round Copper Wire

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Metal Craft Information
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Updated Dec. 13, 2016

 
 

About Shaped Wire

Square, Half Round and more

 
All the wire we list is round wire except were noted. We carry all the readily available popular square and 1/2 round wire. Any others would require a 100 or more pound order to be custom made.
 
Jewelers, model makers and crafts people usually make their own from slightly larger round wire.
This way they save and can create just the amount needed of each specialty shape.
 
One way this is done is with a rolling mill with special platens that make the required shape. These mills are available from large tool houses and range from $499 to many thousands of dollars for the motor driven machines.
 
The most practical way to be able to do an array of special shapes is to use a wire drawing plate. These plates are relatively inexpensive These plates have holes in them in a variety of sizes. It is clamped in a sturdy vice.
A round wire slightly larger than the desired size is pulled through a slightly smaller hole.
 
Pulling or rolling the wire makes the wire makes it thinner and harder. It can be softened or "annealed" to dead soft by heating it up to red hot and quenching it in water. Sometimes a solution is added to the water and heated to clean the wire at the same time.
 
An even more simple solution is to simply snap the wire with one end in a vice to straighten it. Then it is placed on a hard surface and an iron pipe is used with some force to flatten the wire. This works well on all thinner gauges to create a flatter wire. One rolling will create an oval wire. Subsequent rolling can create fairly flat wire. Annealing the wire to soften it may be required between rolling.
 
RAW METAL DEFINITIONS & TERMS
We ship our metals in a raw state- that is un coated with a bright brushed surface. Sculptures, Jewelry & Art are always made of raw metal and cleaned , polished and coated AFTERWARDS. Or they are textured, painted or patinated.
 
Novices often expect metals in the raw state to have a finished surface and do not consider the marring that may occur with creation of a piece; nor consider that metal cannot be soldered, braised, or welded if there is any coating on the metal. Precious metal suppliers are often vexed by expedient beginners expecting to be shipped mirror finish sheet and wire for crafting jewelry.
 
The only metals commonly in use that do not tarnish are fine stainless steel, pure gold and platinum. We do not offer these due to difficulty of working with stainless steel and the cost of gold and platinum. This aside, copper, brass, nickel & aluminum will last a long time with some care. Objects of these metals thousands of years old grace museums.
 
Copper is a very reactive metal and will gain a natural patina with time like the Statue of Liberty. see Patinas and Finishes. But with a little care copper and alloys of metal containing copper such as brass and Nickel silver can be kept bright for a long time.

SEE Cleaning Copper and Brass

 
Unpacking Craft Metal orders:   We handle craft metal with gloves so as to minimize finger prints and wrap to protect in shipment. When opening a wrapped piece be careful not to cut or scratch the craft metal. If it is a coiled item it may spring open slightly when tape is cut.
 
Open packages carefully over a counter top & soft surface as metal may slip out and dent.
 
Craft metal shipped in tubes usually slide out an open end very easily or with with slight tapping- care should be taken not to dent the metal in the process. If it is difficult to remove, unwinding the cardboard tube will uncover the metal.
 
BULK METAL:   Save with our cut to length bulk metal prices for the crafts person. Our cuts are generously long & approximately square. Metal by the running foot or yard is shipped in one length whenever possible. We use this metal to craft our own creations.
 
Most metal is shipped in a roll. If necessary ripples or curves can be flattened by rolling it with a smooth rolling pin or plastic pipe section on a completely smooth surface such as a countertop or glass table. Our thinner gauges are shipped in a tube which works as a roller for smoothing too.
 
GAUGE Is thickness. The higher the gauge number the thinner the metal. For example 23 gauge sheet metal is more than twice as thick as 30 gauge. See below for gauge charts.
 
HARDNESS: Basically how easy it is to bend or work. Hardness has more to do with temper than thickness.   A very hard foil can be stiffer than a very soft sheet metal twice the thickness.
             Medium Soft is pliable yet holds up for folding and hammering.
             Medium Hard is stiff, bends less easily and holds is shape better in larger pieces
 
 
Grade & Finish:  
               Commercial mill grade: Metal as it comes from mill with a rolled satin finish. It has some very light manufacturing ripples, scratches & color variations.   
              Our new metals can be buffed up to shiny satin finish with metal cleaners and a buffing pad. We recommend a powdered cleaner called "Barkeepers Friend" available in most grocery stores. A paste wax or clear varnish can be used to keep metal bright. 
 
               We also offer Reclaimed -Recycled metal: This unused older metal often develops character from being in storage for up to 75 years. It has color variations (patina) and may have  scratches, finger prints, ripples and/or dents, but no holes. It is very usable at a good price. We find this metal too useful  in our own creations to scrap.
 
PATINA: The color that metal acquires with age and oxidation. All the metals we offer are raw with no wax or varnish and will gain patina over time.Patina solutions (available at most hardware stores) can be used to speed the aging process. More about Patina
 
More information on METAL CRAFT HOW-TO : Cleaning, cutting, forming, soldering & finishing
 
CAUTION :HANDLE WITH CARE , Raw metals have sharp edges. Rolls and coils are tightly wound and may spring open. They are not intended for young children . Gauge thickness shown is approximate.Our metals are sold only for craft work; and they are not tested nor certified safe for electrical nor electronic uses, nor home construction nor internal consumption.
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GAUGE Charts for copper sheet & wire:
Gauge Is thickness. The higher the gauge number the thinner the metal.
The approximately 23 gauge copper sheet is heavy - traditionally used for roofs and range hoods- where it will last hundreds of years. It weighs one pound per square foot approximately.
 
Anything thicker in sheet is in the area of metal plate. It is difficult to bend and can not be cut with tin snips. A cutting torch or saw is used for this.


This chart shows approximate gauge thickness for wire
and may not appear correctly on all screens.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GAUGE Charts for copper sheet & wire:
To see what we offer in these gauges click to see our pages:   SHEET METAL       TOOLING FOIL     CRAFT WIRE    RECYCLED METAL
 
 Gauge  Dimension (inches)  Pounds per Sq. Foot in copper sheet approximately*
 8  .128  5.12 ( heavy copper plating over 1/4 inch thick)
 12  .080  3.20
 14  .064  2.56
 16   .051  2.04
 18  .040  1.60 ( thick copper sheet called "plate" as in "plate steel")
 20  .032  1.28
 22 . 025  1.18
 23  .023

  1.00 pound per square foot approximately

(standard heavy weight for larger craft work, roofing and range hoods etc.)

 24  .020  14.2 ounces per square foot .89 Pounds per square foot medium-heavy weight
 26   .016   .64
 30 .010  .40 medium weight sheet twice as thick as 36 gauge
 36  .005   .234 (heavy foil/ tooling foil)
 38 .002   .09
 

.0014


.0007

thin foil household foil- called heavy household foil
very thin foil - standard aluminum kitchen foil "tin foil"
 
 
More How-To articles free to view or print:
RAW METAL Terms & Gauge Chart
Cleaning Copper and Brass
Cutting Metal Sheet and Wire
Flattening, Bending & Forming Metal
Tooling Metal with
Copper Foil, Aluminum Foil Brass Foil
Soldering
Patinas and Finishes
Sheathing with copper: counter & Table Tops
 
Soldering Brass & Copper: 19 pages in color
 

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(c) Copyright 2009-2010 all rights reserved -the Whimsie Studio. Larry Henke & Ronald Bodoh
 
These articles and writings are for our customers personal use only. They may not be copied or published in whole or part, in any form electronically or in print without express written permission of the authors Larry Henke & Ronald Bodoh